Screening verification report

screee

Screening is done before project in order to identify the potential environmental and social impacts the project may bring about. The Screening process is important to prevent the potential hazards, by opting for other than the proposed methods if necessary. The screening involves the consideration of pollutants emitted, of biodiversity harmed, waste disposal and even the health and safety impacts. But while screening is necessary to see that there is no flaw in the environmental concerns of any project, screening verification is also important to see that there is no flaw in the screening report itself. So what are included in the screening verification report?

The Screening Verification Report includes the Environmental Screening Verification and the Social Screening Verification. The environmental screening verification first verifies the baseline, that is, whether the screening report include the basic surrounding environment like the location and land use, river, water body, forest, community forest, protected area and buffer zone. It also verifies if the impacts pertaining to solid, liquid, waste and gaseous emission, air, water, soil, noise pollution, storage or disposal of wastes and health and safety impacts are included in the screening report or not. Finally, it includes the subproject categorization and recommendation of the safeguard document to be prepared during Detailed Design (DD).

The Social Screening Verification also includes the same issues as that of the Environmental Screening Verification, the baseline, impacts and categorization and recommendation. The Baseline checks if the screening report has outlined the presence of nearby and vulnerable community. The impacts are measured on the basis of displacement, involuntary land acquisition and population impacted.

Climate Change is Now

bhrahmaputra-flooding

Climate change is the stunned tears when a rural family in terai, the flat plains of Nepal, in the bank of Koshi river had to leave their dead infant to float away in the river when the flood did not leave even a burial ground. Climate Change is the utter despair the photographers and the world felt after seeing the picture of the starving polar bear minutes from its death. Drought, famine, sea level rise, water scarcity, climate refugees, extreme events, dying corals, wildfire, retreating glaciers, species extinction, infrastructure loss, ecosystem and most of all, our way of life is the cost of carbon. Climate change is the screams of people as their heritage was slowly swept away by the coastal tide. Climate change is the terror in people when they see their loved ones drowning and their home broken by disasters. Climate change is now.

Yes, the disasters have always been occurring in the world, but the frequency and intensity and even the duration has all changed considerably, due to the warming globe and the changing climate. According to Kevin Trenberth from U.S National Center for Atmospheric Research, “Global warming is contributing to an increased incidence of extreme weather because the environment in which all storms form   has changed from human activities.” All the extreme events that occurred in the face of earth in 2017 has cost the economic loss of around  $306 billion, as calculated by Insurance firm Swiss Re, which is almost double 2016’s loss of $188 billion. “Continued emission of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and long-lasting changes in all components of the climate system, increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems.” (IPCC). According to J. Eric Smith, CEO, Swiss Re, “What keeps us up at night is climate change. We see the long-term effect of climate change on society, and it really frightens us.” Typhoon Haiyan  killed more than 6,000 people in the Philippines, left four million people without houses, and caused $2 billion (1.48 billion euros) worth of damage. Similarly other coastal storms and disasters like floods have also caused damage all over the world. Kiribati has already become the first nation to buy land in another country for their climate refugees. 20,000,000 people were affected by flooding in the September 2010 flooding in Pakistan. Over a million were forced to flee their homes in the flooding in Assam, India. Up to three million people were affected by flooding in China in June 2014. In April 2017, it was revealed that two-thirds of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef has been severely damaged by coral bleaching.

While studying my course in environmental Science, in 2016, I had visited one of the mountain village to learn about the impact of climate change in people’s livelihood as a part of my final year undergrad project. Most of villagers I met were farmers and their livelihood was dependent on agriculture. But, the change in rain pattern, especially causing from the delay in monsoon rains have largely affected the agricultural yield diminishing their ability to produce sufficient yields. And this has forced them to look for other income sources, which is why many of the adult male members of the families are migrating to middle east for labour jobs. Only the old men and women are left in the village, creating more work burden to women. These stories are not often reported in mainstream media or even discussed in the climate change debate. Most of the people and experts are obsessed with issues of snow melting and glacier lake outburst and often ignore these social issues. The impact people are feeling at the household level are often ignored more than we like, as the impacts from the changes occur in almost every communities of the world, and all of the effects require most immediate actions. What we need right now is no doubt the think global, and act local. Similarly, I have lived in the city of Kathmandu, and have the first hand experience of water scarcity. The traditional water sources are drying out in kathmandu. The water spouts (dhunge drara) which were once the key water source of communities in major areas of kathmandu valley are now dried up. The place Sun Dhara, which literally translates to golden taps, was a famous community tap for many decades, but now, are only reminiscent of the past. Because of the depleting water discharge in these stone spouts, the local people now rely on other methods. like paying water tankers to bring them water from other sources. This actually has created another pressure in other water sources nearby kathmandu valley where I often see water tankers queuing up in those rivers and springs putting new risks to these new water sources.  In the age, where we are constantly aware of what is happening in the areas of climate change locally and globally, these traditional knowledge systems and traditional water sources are slowing slipping out of our conscious minds.

While negotiations are going around in the world to combat the climate change, the scenarios of the climate change is taking turn for the worst in many places across the world. In regards to the international agreements pertaining to climate change, Nepal has also been doing works for the cause, major ones being the National Adaptation Plan (NAP), National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA), Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA), which works for the adaptation and building resilience of the communities to the changing climate. Any delay in climate action is renewed risk to these community places, delay in negotiation is losing another species, delay in switching to renewable sources is the loss of biodiversity, delay in policy formulation is the loss of life. Because climate change is now.

 

Barriers to installing Biogas

One of the major barriers in installing bio gas components can be the technical constraints. It is important to see the feasibility of installing a large scale biogas program in any place and if it fits in the local constraint. For a productive bio gas plant, it is important to maintain the minimum digester temperature throughout the year, night stabling, water availability. Space is another important consideration. Some of the farmers from higher Himalayas elevation report insufficiency of gas during colder months. These are some of the technical barriers that may come up during the project.

The technical barriers shown by AEPC are as follows:

  • Research & Development: lack of research and development to continuously improve and innovate the technology to improve efficiency and additional end uses for income-generating activities;
  • Orientation of the construction companies: all the companies engaged in plant construction have a profit motif, there is some negligence about the quality control and after-sale-service.

When installing biogas availability of manure and water as input needs to be assured to be close to the plant’s inlet and correct plant operation should be ensured. These can be addressed by user trainings, illustrative manuals, to name a few.

barriers

Sometimes, the installation cost can be too much for the people to be able to afford. At such times, subsidy policies are expected to make the installation possible. The barrier can also be the question of how to scale up and stimulate bio slurry use in the community, which can be a very useful trading opportunity too. Trading appliances can be another hindrance which can be supported by the reduced government taxes.

The financial economic barriers are as follows:

  • “High investment costs required for plant installation, because it is probably the largest investment made by a farmer. Cost reduction without compromising reliability is an important aspect;
  • Farmer’s affordability: the negative growth in agricultural sector and inflation has adversely affected the farmer’s affordability. Lack of adequate income-generating activities and support required for such activity is an important barrier for technology dissemination as biogas;
  • Access to credit: loans for the construction of a biogas plant is difficult to an ordinary farmer as often mortgage is required to advance the loan. Sufficient properties are often not owned.” (AEPC, 2000)

The social barriers is identified to be: Illiteracy. Studies show that 75% of the biogas owners are educated. However, it is very difficult to convince uneducated farmers about its importance.

To address this problem, usually information is disseminated through the radio broadcasts, and information are prepared in printed form with very little text.

BIODEGRADABLE WASTE TO ENERGY

wastetoenergyfianl-140520054719-phpapp01-thumbnail-4

Any materials that can be decomposed are regarded as biodegradable. Maximum of the waste generated in household level is usually biodegradable, and therefore has the potential of getting converted into energy instead of getting lost as solid waste. Even in the case of Kathmandu, Solid waste management is a huge problem and over 70% of the waste generated is organic waste. The landfill site is a mess because of unmanaged waste disposal and has resulted in problems of leachate  infiltration to odour to outbreaks of diseases. Instead of having problems like these, if we were to take up a more sustainable approach to convert the waste into energy, it would help in reusing these wastes, reducing dependency on the fossil fuels, more managed waste disposal to name a few.

According to the Baseline and Feasibility Assessment of the Waste to Energy Report, 2015, submitted to the AEPC, (Alternative Energy Promotion Center,) the available biodegradable waste produced per day for the community biogas plant from cattle dung, night soil and kitchen are 8.5 per cattle, 0.86 kg per person and 0.34 kg per person respectively. The waste produced per day for the commercial level biogas plant from cattle farm, night soil, kitchen waste are 45.83 kg per buffalo, 7.91 kg per cattle, 0.48 kg person and 0.38 kg per person respectively. The waste produced for the institutional level biogas plant from night soil and kitchen waste are 0.46 kg per person and 0.36 kg per person respectively. Similarly, for municipal level biogas plants, organic solid waste generated is 0.51 kg per capita. Community biogas plant for 4-5 family of 15 m3 size will reduce 9940 kg fuel wood and 10.46 ton CO2 emission per year. Commercial and Institutional biogas plant of 35 m3 size will reduce 1873 kg LPG and 5.59 ton CO2 emission per year. Municipal solid waste of 136 ton per day for Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur districts will reduce 18,764 tonne CO2 per year.

The breakdown of organic matter by anaerobic bacteria produces a mixture of different gases like the methane and carbon dioxide which is referred to as the biogas. The wastes coming from variety of sources like animal manure, plant material, sewage, municipal waste, food waste can be turned into biogas this way. This biogas can then be used as an alternative energy, after converting it into heat or electrical energy. It also exerts far less carbon footprint than the fossil fuels while also managing the wastes in a more sustainable way. The main microorganisms that breaks down these wastes are Psychrophillic bacteria, Mesophilic bacteria and Thermophilic bacteria. According to studies, the gas production potential of cattle is about 0.023-0.040 m3 gas production per kg, that of pig is 0.040-0.059 m3 and that of human excreta is 0.020-0.028 m3.

The subsidy policy of Nepal (2069) recognizes broadly four different types f waste to energy projects. They are commercial, institutional, community and municipal. The municipal solid waste based biogas plant converts municipal waste to energy. The community based biogas plant has a common gas grid system and is built to help convert all the community wastes accumulation to energy. The produced slurry is also shared among the community people for farming fertilization purpose or can be sold to the market too. The plants installed in commercial institutions like firms, farms, hotels, industries are referred to as commercial biogas plant and they are of higher capacity than the household ones. The bio digesters established in institutional places like academic institutions, religious institutions, farms, etc, are referred to as institutional biogas plant.

Because of the ongoing climate crisis, reducing the green house gases emission has become a major concern of the present, and one of the best ways to do that is through the renewable energy technology. The first Clean Development Mechanism was also prepared for the biogas technology and registered with the UNFCCC. The Centre for Rural Technology has also implemented CDM-GS prject in six districts in Terai of Nepal and certified emission reductions have been issued. The Netherlands Development Organization has also initiated ICS carbon projects in seven district of Far-Western region to promote 150,000 improved stoves. But still, according to a study by the Ministry of Finance in 2015, the consumption of traditional, commercial and renewable energy has been 77%, 20% and 3%, which shows how much dependent we are on the traditional energy system. But, the potential of biogas in Nepal is huge, and Nepali farming system is heavily dependent on livestock, and according to the same report, there is technical biogas potential for at least one million household size plants, 57% located in the Terai plains, 37% in the hills and 6% in remote hills. There are about 200 community and institutional biogas plants in Nepal which range from 6-75 m3 and are normally fed from kitchen wastes, toilet waste and livestock manure.